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BotTorrent: A new paradigm in hacktivism?

The Low Orbit Ion Cannon, or LOIC, is a popular tool for taking down websites these days. It was used on Visa, Master Card, Paypal and other institutions by "Anonymous" hacktivists.


A new weapon of mass awareness is in the horizon, however, that may very well step up the severity and efficiency of these attacks. If effective, it will set into motion attacks originating from thousands of computers worldwide. The difference? End-users will not necessarily know they are participating in the attacks.


Thought BitTorrent was just about downloading movies and TV shows? Think again: The BitTorrent protocol can be abused to initiate massive denial of service attacks, which could be used to take down large-scale websites. This exploit is based on BitTorrent’s ability to download data without the help of any centralized server, also known as trackerless BitTorrent. Here's how it would work.


A home user navigates to a torrent search engine to download a popular file (a film or TV show, for instance).The file may have several thousands of leechers or seeders; these numbers may increase to the hundreds of thousands in some cases, depending on the popularity of the file. For simplicity, think of each leecher as one computer attempting to download the file.


BitTorrent was originally designed with a central server dubbed tracker in mind which would help users interested in the same file find each other to facilitate downloads. However, these tracker servers have become a kind of Achilles heel of the P2P protocol. Once a tracker server goes down, the whole network goes down. BitTorrent programmers came up with a way to discover users without such a server that’s based on the Kademlia DHT technology.


This technology is based on individual BitTorrent clients randomly introducing themselves to each other to establish a kind of distributed directory. However, it was recently showed that one can manipulate some of the data exchanged by BitTorrent clients for trackerless torrenting to introduce oneself to many more clients in the network than necessary and then tell those clients that a popular file is available under a certain IP address.


By manipulating the data being communicated through BitTorrent clients, one can create the appearance of availability for a given file and cause leechers to attempt a download. The leecher would not actually be downloading the intended file, but attacking a target IP without their knowledge. This would result in the flooding of the target host and, in many cases, eventual take-down of the target site.


Nefarious users could utilize publicly available data from torrent sites like The Pirate Bay to find DHT hashes for some of the most popular files and essentially trick some of these downloaders into attacking a certain target. For example, one could tell tens of thousands of users that a fresh version of Tron Legacy (not yet released!) is available at an address that really is the web server of a corporation. All of these users would immediately try to download the file under that address, bombarding the server with requests and possibly taking it down in the process.



Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks were most recently used to take down the sites of major credit card companies as part of the Anonymous revenge for actions taken against WikiLeaks. However, users tend to actively take part in a DDoS attack. In the case of this type of exploit, users may not even be aware that they’re bombarding a bank server with bogus requests while they’re trying to download a movie file.


This new technology, termed BotTorrent, would have revolutionary significance not merely in virtue of its creative underpinnings, but in terms of legal responsibility. Clearly, it is unlikely that end-users would prosecuted for carrying out an attack of which they had no knowledge. Furthermore, given the number of unknowing users carrying out the attacks, the magnitude of the attacks would expand massively.

Operation Zimbabwe

The Zimbabwe African National Union (Zanu-PF) website, Zimbabwean government website and Zimbabwean Finance Ministry website were the recent target of cyber attacks by the group of online hacktivists known as "Anonymous."
The websites were hit with distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks after Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's wife, Grace Mugabe, sued a newspaper for publishing a WikiLeaks cable that alleged she was connected with illicit diamond trade.

A further defacement against the Finance Ministry's web site at www.zimtreasury.gov.zw took all news content offline, replacing it with a single message: "We are Anonymous.  We are Legion.  We do not forgive.  We do not forget.  Expect us


Speaking on behalf of Anonymous, nobody in particular commented, "We are targeting Mugabe and his regime in the ZanuPF who have outlawed the free press and threaten to sue anyone publishing wikileaks."

Cyber activists said they had brought down government websites after Mugabe's wife sued a newspaper for publishing a WikiLeaks cable that linked her with the alleged trade in illicit diamonds .

The Zimbabwean government website was unavailable today, while the finance ministry website displayed a message saying it was under maintenance.

All three websites targeted by "Anonymous" were knocked offline and the Finance Ministry website was also defaced with messages saying "We are Anonymous" and "The world hates us, we kill our own people, we have no control of the economy, we repress free speech, we kill and rape for fun, we are Zanu-PF."

Grace Mugabe filed a defamation lawsuit against Zimbabwe's Standard newspaper for $15 million after the paper quoted a leaked US diplomatic cable that said she and nine other high-ranking Zimbabwean officials make "tremendous profits" from the sale of illegal diamonds.


 

The offending article quotes from a US embassy cable that alleged she was among a group of elite Zimbabweans making "several hundred thousand dollars a month" from the sale of illegal stones mined in the politically sensitive Marange district. Grace Mugabe denies the allegations.

"The CEO of a British mining company described to us how high-ranking Zimbabwean government officials and well-connected elites are generating millions of dollars in personal income by hiring teams of diggers to hand-extract diamonds from the Chiadzwa mine in eastern Zimbabwe," the cable stated.

"They are selling the undocumented diamonds to a mix of foreign buyers including Belgians, Israelis, Lebanese, Russians and South Africans who smuggle them out of the country for cutting and resale elsewhere."

Zimbabwe's attorney general has formed a commission to investigate the WikiLeaks cables with a view to bring charges of treason against anyone found to be colluding with "aggressive" foreign governments. This has been seen as a thinly veiled attempt to target the country's prime minister, Morgan Tsvangirai.

Operation: Bank of America

Bank of America on Dec. 17 joined several other financial institutions in refusing to process financial payments for WikiLeaks, which has come under fire since its Nov. 28 decision to begin publicizing some 250,000 secret US diplomatic cables. The bank said in a statement that the secret-spilling organization “may be engaged in activities that are, among other things, inconsistent with our internal policies for processing payments.”

Almost immediately, online activists under the Anonymous banner began plotting “Operation BOA Constrictor” against the biggest US bank by assets. A source close to Anonymous recently confirmed that Operation BOA Constrictor was in the works.

At the Anonymous-frequented website “Truth Is Revolutionary,” a message thread created Dec. 18 was titled “Proposal for new Ops: Operation BOA Constrictor.”

“I would like to prepare, organize and coordinate with the upcoming WikiLeaks release of BOA material, a protest against the Bank of America. The protest could take any form,” states the first message, posted under the name “Zarly." The same user later in the thread suggests protest methods such as “mass fax, flood email servers, mass sticker/poster campaign, sit-ins, phone-ins, various media blitz techniques, truth outs…”

There are Internet rumors that WikiLeaks has documents embarrassing or harmful to Bank of America. WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange said in an interview reported yesterday that he has dirt on a "major bank," which he didn't name.

Firewall to Block WikiLeaks 'Pollution'

Among the more striking aspects of the still unfolding WikiLeaks controversy are government demands that their workers -- and even federal contractors -- refrain from reading leaked classified documents, even though they are in the public domain.


Now, according to one network security company, the government wants to install a system that can block unclassified computers from accessing WikiLeaks documents no matter where they originate

Fidelis Security, a Boston-based network security company that works with the military and other government agencies, says it's being asked to set up a firewall against WikiLeaks document traffic, regardless of whether it flows from a website, e-mail or other source.

Fidelis sells a network security system to federal agencies that is designed to prevent "data extrusion," or leaks, but it can also be used to prevent data -- in this case, classified documents released by WikiLeaks -- from coming into a network.


For government agencies, which have declared the WikiLeaks documents off limits, such software offers a potential solution to what Fidelis calls "pollution" of the unclassified networks by classified documents leaked on the Internet.

Wikileaks Task Force

The CIA has launched a new task force to assess the impact of Cablegate. The Wikileaks Task Force, , better known by the agency as the acronym WTF, will focus on media exposure and the repercussions of the newest cable releases.

According to a report by the Washington Post, the agency has launched the task force to appraise the impact of thousands of sensitive diplomatic documents and military files hitting the web thanks to WikiLeaks.



Among the task force’s responsibilities is “whether the agency's ability to recruit informants could be damaged by declining confidence in the U.S. government's ability to keep secrets,” the report said.

CIA spokesman George Little told the paper that the panel is being led by the CIA's Counterintelligence Center. It is made up of more than two dozen members from departments across the agency.

After Wikileaks published its first batch of classified documents, CIA spokesperson George Little had claimed that the CIA was "unconcerned" about the Wikileaks disclosures. Conversely, on November 8, the following press release emerged:

"When information about our intelligence, our people, or our operations appears in the media, it does incredible damage to our nation’s security and our ability to do our job of protecting the nation."

It seems it was only a matter of time before Little would announce the emergence of a team devoted entirely to the leaks. At present, WTF is taking inventory of all CIA-related information categorized as "classified" but its focus will be that of ascertaining the potential damage to foreign relations that may have been caused by Cablegate leaks.

"It's just a huge vulnerability," an unnamed former high-ranking CIA officer told the Post. "Nobody could carry out enough paper to do what WikiLeaks has done."

Czech version of Wikileaks

WikiLeaks has also been made available on hundreds of mirror sites hosted around the world that duplicate the site's content, including at least three in the Czech Republic.

The domain Wikileaks.ch is registered to the Swedish branch of the Pirate Party, an international movement advocating freedom of information and open government.

Jakub Michálek, a board member of Pirate Parties International as well as head of administration for the Czech Pirate Party, told The Prague Post the party is in full support of the WikiLeaks project.



"We strongly believe freedom of the press is a value that deserves protection, and the people should have free access to information. If a situation happens that a server that is a primary source of information for journalists worldwide is attacked, we see it fit the information is copied and distributed to other servers," Michálek said, referring to the party's mirror of Wikileaks on its own website.

It appears that the Czech Pirate Party's attempt to set up its own Wikileaks site isn't going as smoothly as the group hoped. The CPP (Ceska piratska strana) announced the inauguration of its "PirateLeaks" information service earlier this month, to be officially launched on Tuesday. But now the organization says that there will be some delays due to security issues.

"We could host content immediately; that's straightforward," Jakub Michálek, editor-in-chief of PirateLeaks explained to the Czech Position news service. "But what isn't straightforward is insuring 100 percent anonymity for the informers."

The Czech Pirate Party is similar to the Swedish Pirate Party, which advocates for the rights of citizens to share files and publish or access information. The CPP registered as a political entity in June of 2009, and about a year later garnered 0.8 percent of the vote in the Czech Republic's Chamber of Deputies Parliamentary election.

The group has been a big supporter of Wikileaks for quite a while. In May it launched a "pirate copy" of the site—not just a redirect, "but an exact copy, which will be regularly updated," according to a translation of the announcement.

As for establishing its own version of Wikileaks, the CPP describes the project as a "great way to influence regional politics." PirateLeaks will faithfully operate along the Wikileaks methodology—soliciting documents from institutional insiders and getting help from news media in verifying their authenticity.

The big problem, as Michálek sees it, is how to create a portal that protects the identity of sources. And so the party says it will turn to a hosting company owned by the founders of torrent sharing site The Pirate Bay, Gottfrid Svartholm and Fredrik Neij's PeRiQuito (PRQ).

The CPP became a bit more nervous about this project after prominent Czech Republic Christian Democrat Cyril Svoboda declared that PirateLeaks supporters "belong behind bars." In response, CPP activists say they'll petition the government to rename Svoboda (which means "freedom" in Czech) "Cyril Censor."

There is no sure date yet for the launch of PirateLeaks, according to Czech Position.

Assange under threat


The founder of WikiLeaks Julian Assange has claimed he is being bombarded with death threats from American soldiers.

According to some media, a statement on the steps of the High Court in London last week after he was released on bail was cut short because police feared for his safety but Mr Assange disclosed that. As a result he only spoke for a few minutes. He said: “I could have stayed there talking for an hour, but the police were worried because I could have been assassinated – or something like that.”


Assange


Who is Assange?


Australian-born Mr Assange, 39, said his son Daniel, 20, and his lawyer have received similar chilling warnings. Speaking to Spain's El Pais after being released on £275,000 bail, he said: “I receive death threats all the time. My lawyer receives them, my son receives them. And I believe most of them seem to come from members of the United States armed forces.” Mr Assange’s son Daniel, who works for a software design company, is believed to be in hiding in Australia.

Mr Assange was speaking after American Vice President Joe Biden said he was a dangerous “hi-tech terrorist”, the strongest criticism yet from the Obama administration, adding officials were looking at ways to prosecute him.


Threats


Biden claimed that by leaking diplomatic cables Assange had put lives at risk and made it more difficult for the US to conduct its business around the world.

His description of Assange shows a level of irritation that contrasts with more sanguine comments from other senior figures in the White House, who said the leak had not done serious damage. Asked whether he thought Assange was a hi-tech terrorist or a whistle-blower, Mr Biden said: “I would argue that it's closer to being hi-tech terrorist.”

Interviewed on NBC's Meet the Press, Biden was asked if the administration could prevent further leaks, as Assange warned last week. "We are looking at that right now. The justice department is taking a look at that," Biden said, without elaborating. The justice department is struggling to find legislation with which to prosecute Assange.

Asked if what Assange had done was criminal, Biden seemed to suggest it would be considered criminal if it could be established that the WikiLeaks founder had encouraged or helped Bradley Manning, the US intelligence analyst suspected of being behind the leak. Biden claimed this was different from a journalist receiving leaked material.

"If he conspired to get these classified documents with a member of the US military that is fundamentally different than if someone drops on your lap … you are a press person, here is classified material."

Asked if he saw Assange as closer to a hi-tech terrorist than the whistleblower who released the Pentagon papers in the 1970s, which disclosed the lie on which US involvement in Vietnam was based, Biden replied: "I would argue it is closer to being a hi-tech terrorist than the Pentagon papers. But, look, this guy has done things that have damaged and put in jeopardy the lives and occupations of people in other parts of the world.

"He's made it more difficult for us to conduct our business with our allies and our friends. For example, in my meetings – you know I meet with most of these world leaders – there is a desire now to meet with me alone, rather than have staff in the room. It makes things more cumbersome – so it has done damage."

And yesterday night, on top of all this, Bob Beckel said, live on Fox News, Julian Assange should be shot dead!!!




More censorship

Bank of America has joined the growing list of financial and technology companies that have cut off services to WikiLeaks, a move that comes amid speculation that the whistleblower site is preparing to release information about the bank.




Bank of America joins in the actions previously announced by MasterCard, PayPal, Visa Europe and others and will not process transactions of any type that we have reason to believe are intended for WikiLeaks," the bank said in a statement issued Friday. "This decision is based upon our reasonable belief that WikiLeaks may be engaged in activities that are, among other things, inconsistent with our internal policies for processing payments," the bank said.


In response, Wikileaks urged its supporters to stop doing business with the bank - one of the world's largest. The reaction from WikiLeaks was swift. "Does your business do business with Bank of America?" said a twitter message from WikiLeaks late Friday. "Our advise is to place your funds somewhere safer."

Assange's personal life, meanwhile, has been under scrutiny. Assange is wanted for questioning by the Swedish government regarding sexual assault allegations from two women related to incidents in August in the country. He was detained earlier this month in the U.K. after Sweden issued a warrant for his arrest.

The U.K. High Court ruled that Assange could be freed on £240,000 ($374,000) in bail, pending a January extradition hearing. Mr Assange, 39, dismissed the claims as part of a "smear" campaign. He also said he was worried about an attempt to extradite him to the United States, adding that Washington was conducting an "aggressive" and "illegal" investigation into him and the website.

The U.S. Attorney General's office is investigating Assange in relation to the release of the U.S. embassy cables, but has yet to charge him.



In a statement, the North Carolina-based Bank of America said it would "not process transactions of any type that we have reason to believe are intended for Wikileaks". The statement provided no further details. WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange said in an interview with CNBC Friday that WikiLeaks would soon release information about banks. In an interview with Forbes magazine last month, he said WikiLeaks was prepared to reveal information on a bank that would show "unethical practices." There has been speculation that the Bank of America could be one of the institutions mentioned in the US diplomatic cables

Censorship, Paperstorm and an Open Letter


Censorship


The Air Force is blocking computer access to The New York Times and other media sites that published sensitive diplomatic documents released by the Internet site WikiLeaks, a spokeswoman said Tuesday.

Major Toni Tones, a spokeswoman at Air Force Space Command in Colorado, said the command had blocked employees whose computers are connected to the Air Force network from accessing at least 25 websites that have posted WikiLeaks documents.

She said the action was taken by the 24th Air Force, which is commanded by Maj. Gen. Richard Webber and is responsible for cyberwarfare and computer security for the service. The move was approved by Air Force lawyers, she said.

The Army and Navy say they have not taken similar actions.

The Air Force "routinely blocks Air Force network access to websites hosting inappropriate materials or malware (malicious software) and this includes any website that hosts classified materials and those that are released by WikiLeaks," she said.

The Air Force move comes as the U.S. government seeks to minimize the damage from WikiLeaks' release of 250,000 State Department cables through media outlets and on its own website.



"If a site has republished the documents, then we block it," she said, adding that the move to prevent access to the media sites was done recently. She said she was not sure of the date.
Tones said the New York Times is the only major U.S. newspaper included in the ban. Others include Der Spiegel in Germany, the Guardian in Britain and Le Monde in France.

The White House on Dec. 3 formally reminded all federal employees and government contractors that anyone without a security clearance is not permitted to read classified documents, such as the diplomatic messages published by WikiLeaks, even on a personal computer at home outside work hours.

It was not immediately clear how the U.S. government would enforce this, but the White House said employees who inadvertently viewed the information should contact their U.S. security offices at work. The notice by the White House Office of Management and Budget said publication of the files by WikiLeaks "has resulted in damage to our national security."

The New York Times Co. issued a statement in response to the action Tuesday, saying "it is unfortunate that the U.S. Air Force has chosen not to allow its personnel access to information that virtually everyone else in the world can access."

The Pentagon had already prohibited its employees from viewing WikiLeaks documents online, no matter how widely they are published, but it has not blocked access to websites that post leaked cables.

Pentagon officials have instructed employees they "shouldn't access the WikiLeaks site because the information there is still considered classified," said Colonel David Lapan, a Pentagon spokesman.

Operation Paperstorm


Anonymous is starting a new, low tech, analogical operation based on the idea of spreading the word using paper flyers posted everywhere.










Open Letter


Simultaneously, Anonymous released an open letter:

Operation Payback - The Next Battles

Some of UK's official’s have warned that government websites could become the next target for pro-Wikileaks hackers particularly websites used to file tax returns or claim benefits could be the most vulnerable. So far attacks from the Anonymous group of hacktivists have concentrated on firms perceived to be anti-Wikileaks.
Anonymous

UK web attacks could be likely because Mr Assange, Wikileaks founder has appeared in court where he was granted bail but will remain in prison pending an appeal against the decision. He is wanted by authorities in Sweden for questioning over two sex crimes. He denies the crimes and will fight extradition, his lawyer said.
Assange

His mother Christine Assange, who has visited him in prison, said he remained committed to the ideals of Wikileaks. She also passed on his thoughts on the firms which have withdrawn services from the whistle-blowing site. "We now know that Visa, Mastercard, PayPal and others are instruments of US foreign policy. It's not something we knew before," Mr Assange said. The US government has denied that it wrote to individual firms, asking them to stop doing business with Wikileaks.


Assange

Some have described the fight between Anonymous, Wikileaks and the US government as the "first infowar" but security experts have downplayed the conflict has being just a demonstration, a protest, nothing more than political theatre - entertaining and influential but not war.

Some go as far as to say that this is not a cyberwar because if we are calling it war, we are devaluing what war is. It's a cyber mob. Nevertheless, mobs can be destructive but they tend not to have a long lasting impact.

Meanwhile the US government remains determined to bring Wikileaks and it’s founder to book by exploring a nearly century-old spy law as a way to prosecute Mr Assange.

Controversial documentary director Michael Moore has offered up his help to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, both in the form of cash and other resources. The offer came as Assange was finally granted bail from a UK prison—pending Sweden's appeal—on the condition that he obeys a nightly curfew and won't flee the country.



Moore said in an editorial posted to the Huffington Post that he had offered $20,000 of his own money to help bail out Assange. (The offer was made in a letter sent to the court before law enforcement granted Assange his quasi-freedom on Tuesday.) In addition to the money, Moore said that he also wants to offer up his website, servers, domain names, and "anything else I can do to keep WikiLeaks alive and thriving as it continues its work to expose the crimes that were concocted in secret and carried out in our name and with our tax dollars."


"I stand today in absentia with Julian Assange in London and I ask the judge to grant him his release," Moore wrote. "I am willing to guarantee his return to court with the bail money I have wired to said court. I will not allow this injustice to continue unchallenged."


In the cyber war front the main WikiLeaks Web site, WikiLeaks.org, is back up in the U.S. less than 10 days after domain name service provider EveryDNS terminated the whistleblower organization's domain name, citing stability concerns.

On Dec. 3, EveryDNS announced that it was terminating the WikiLeaks.org domain name because of repeated distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks that were launched against the Web site soon after it started publishing classified cables from the U.S. Department of State. EveryDNS said it was deactivating WikiLeaks.org because of concerns that the DDoS attacks would cause problems for the nearly 500,000 other Web sites running on EveryDNS's infrastructure.

In response to EveryDNS's actions, WikiLeaks established several new country-level domains, such as WikiLeaks.ch in Switzerland, WikiLeaks.at in Austria and WikiLeaks.cc in Cocos Islands. It then pointed the new domains back to existing IP addresses, or began having the new domains hosted with service providers in different countries.


The restored site is now being hosted by Silicon Valley Web Hosting and is using Dynadot, a San Mateo, California based firm as its registrar and DNS provider, according to Netcraft, an Internet monitoring firm based in the U.K. The site has been up and running since Friday, according to Netcraft. For the moment, the U.S site does not appear to be serving up any content. Instead, it is redirecting users to a mirror site hosted by an Internet service provider in Russia.

But the internet security firm Spamhaus yesterday warned that the site's new incarnation could be riddled with malware run by "Russian cybercriminals". WikiLeaks.org redirects users to a mirror site – mirror.wikileaks.info – which sits within an IP range hosted by the Russian firm Webalta.The main concern is that any WikiLeaks archive posted on a site that is hosted in Webalta space might be infected with malware, since the main wikileaks.org website now transparently redirects visitors to mirror.wikileaks.info, and thus directly into Webalta's controlled IP address space, there is substantial risk that any malware infection would spread widely.

Even so, it is surprising to see WikiLeaks.org being hosted again in the U.S. considering the amount of opposition there has been to its recent actions.


WikiLeaks also heavily reinforced its WikiLeaks.ch domain to avoid a repeat of what happened with EveryDNS. To mitigate the possibility of one DNS provider once again shutting off the domain as EveryDNS had done, WikiLeaks signed up with separate DNS service providers in eight different countries, including Switzerland, Canada and Malaysia. The WikiLeaks.ch site today has a total of 14 different name servers across 11 different networks providing authoritative name services for the WikiLeaks.ch domain. In addition, analysts estimate there are more than 1,000 mirror sites around the world serving up WikiLeaks content so that it is technically almost impossible to entirely remove from the internet.

Leakspin



Operation Payback - Mission Leakflood


Mission Leakflood


Operation Payback have come up with a new way to annoy corporations that have severed their ties with WikiLeaks: bombard them with faxes. As part of its new Leakflood mission, the Anonymous group of 'hacktivists' is encouraging its members to send a large number of faxes to Amazon, MasterCard, Moneybookers, PayPal, Visa and Tableau Software.
In online chats, group members have posted the fax numbers for about a half-dozen corporations and are calling volunteers to fill up the fax machines, using free online fax services such as MyFax.com and FaxZero.com. They're recommending that people use anonymizing software such as the Tor Project to access these sites, so that they cannot be traced by authorities.
This latest campaign by the Anonymous group is analogous to the distributed denial of service attacks it has been carrying out against websites over the past week. In essence, this has turned into a DDoS attack against fax machines. The group started the fax-attacks today at 13:00 GMT and published a list of target fax numbers in their call to arms:

"The enemy is adapting to our strategies, Gentlemen, but they are a lumbering bureaucracy. We can change faster," the group said in a note being circulated on its chat servers Monday.
The activists are being encouraged to send faxes of random WikiLeaks cables, letters from Anonymous, Guy Fawkes, and the WikiLeaks logo to the target fax numbers all day long. It is not clear how many people are taking part in the attacks, but an IRC channel set up to provide information about the campaign contained 73 users just a few hours after the fax-attacks started.

The loosely organized group behind Operation Payback, called Anonymous, has tried this tactic before. In January 2008 it encouraged members to fax-bomb the Church of Scientology, another of its favorite targets.
Although Operation Payback's attacks have gained a lot of media attention, they have had little effect on their targets' core businesses. MasterCard said that some of its SecureCode transaction processing was slowed down last week, but the back-end transaction systems used by Visa and MasterCard have been unaffected by the attacks. Paypal's Paypal.com website went down on Thursday, but the company said that the servers it uses to process transactions were virtually unaffected.
The attacks aren't difficult to thwart, but they do cost money as companies have to scramble and harden their infrastructure. In the meantime, they make it hard for customers to reach the company. Those websites are usually the first port of call for anyone who wants to use those online services.
The fax attacks look like they could be an annoyance, and they appear to be having some effect. Anonymous has posted a list of numbers that it says are no longer responsive.

As well as dishing out attacks, the group has also found itself under attack for supporting WikiLeaks. Many users were knocked off its IRC network after its servers came under attack this morning. It is also understood that the anonops.eu domain (which used to announce the locations of IRC servers and the current attack target) has also come under attack and is currently unavailable.
Real-time performance graphs for websites that have been involved (or may become involved) in the WikiLeaks attacks can be monitored at http://uptime.netcraft.com/perf/reports/performance/wikileaks; however, Netcraft is not monitoring any of the fax machines.

Cyber War V - The Aftermath



Operation Payback


The wave of electronic assaults, referred to as "Operation Payback" led by the Anonymous group of activists as an effort to conduct denial of service attacks against a wide range of targets has experienced something of a setback and is now changing course. Yesterday's arrest of a Dutch teenager has caused some difficulties for the group as well, as he was apparently the operator of an IRC server coordinating the attacks. The result: a change in course and what appears to be diminished enthusiasm on the part of 4chan denizens who make up the Anonymous collective.
Operation Payback

These attacks were aimed at the home sites of the credit card companies. Those sites have high profiles but relatively low traffic levels -- traffic levels that make them more vulnerable to a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack. Such attacks deliberately spike the traffic to a site and make it inaccessible. But those were just are their public-facing websites, not the transaction processing.
While the headlines Operation Payback has been able to generate with its attacks may be giving the credit card companies a black eye and are a source of embarrassment, they are distorting the actual security threat to the firms' financial systems. Where it counts, which is making sure that when you and I are at the mall buying gifts for our family for Christmas, they've got an amazingly robust infrastructure.
Operation Payback's attacks on Visa and MasterCard were undertaken in retaliation for the companies' decision to refuse to process donations to Wikileaks, a site that most recently made waves by leaking hundreds of thousands of private U.S. State Department messages, some of which were classified as "Secret."

PayPal, an online financial transaction company, took similar action, but its main site did not come under attack. They didn't try to take out PayPal itself because PayPal is way too large and distributed and able to resist the attack, and it wouldn't look good for the attacker so they went after Paypal's blog instead because it was an easier target.

Although the transaction systems of the credit card companies may have been insulated from the denial of service attacks on their home sites, the assaults may have some financial consequences for the firms. Both businesses have programs -- Verified By Visa and MasterCard SecureCode -- that require additional authentication when making online purchases with merchants participating in those programs. Those systems are being affected by these denial of service attacks because they rely on MasterCard's and Visa's websites to be there to type in your extra security code. There is the potential of holiday shoppers shopping online not being able to purchase anything with their MasterCard or Visa, and so it could hit the pocketbooks over at the credit card companies.

 

Operation Leakspin

But Operation Payback is yesterday's news. Today, it's all about Operation Leakspin. Now apparently  Anonymous  switched from trying to disrupt anti-Wikileaks sites to trying to spread the info from Wikileaks' secret diplomatic cables in as many ways as possible. This new tactic is called Operation Leakspin.
Operation Leakspin

The idea behind Leakspin is to pick out some of the less-publicized Wikileaks info and post it in innocuous locations, in YouTube videos and on message boards. Videos with popular keywords like "Bieber" could turn out be Anonymous members reading from the secret diplomatic cables. Why the sudden change in tactics? Because the mission all along has been to keep the Wikileaks documents online. "They don't fear the LOIC. They fear exposure," says the Op Leakspin poster.

This morning, Anonymous issued a press release in an attempt to explain its new position. The release states that Anonymous has no interest in compromising personal information or credit card details, but rather that its attacks on financial companies are motivated by a desire to draw attention to the way in which they are hurting WikiLeaks—taking "symbolic action" against the companies' "public faces." The announcement also recognizes that the group has not been doing a good job of explaining its motivation so far.

The authors of the press release also sought to distance themselves from calls made on Twitter yesterday to attack amazon.com—an attack that did not actually occur. A denial of service attack on Amazon was unlikely to succeed—the very reason that WikiLeaks itself used the company for its hosting for a brief period—but more than this, the writers say that such an attack would "affect people such as consumers in a negative way and make them feel threatened by Anonymous." As such, it would be counterproductive and "in bad taste."

In the meantime, several of the Anonymous IRC servers are offline, with some "down for maintenance," which could very well indicate that the group is looking for new hosting. At the very least, they're experiencing serious DNS issues. There also seems to be little enthusiasm for the new approach on 4chan.

Operation Payback has also been slowed down by Twitter and Facebook banning pages that broadcast Anon's plans and calls to action. Although Twitter has said they're not blocking Wikileaks tweets from the trending topics list, they did shut down the Anonymous Operations Twitter account. Facebook took down the equivalent page on its site, too. Naturally, several more have popped up in their place. There are conflicting claims about whether the US government has put pressure on financial services and social media sites to stifle support for Wikileaks.

High Orbit Ion Cannon


But this might not be the end of the DDoS Attacks, today a new tool was released and a new wave of attacks was somehow initiated using the High Orbit Ion Cannon. This new tool is supposed to be more effective, less prone to detection hence theoretically capable of greater damage to targeted websites.
HOIC

Cyber War IV - Operation Payback explained


These kind of hacking campaigns are not a new phenomenon triggered by the Wikileaks situation. Just to mention a well-known example, back in 2003, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) had their site collapsed due to a series of online attacks after they’d launched a joint anti-file piracy campaign together the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA). Now we have this so called “Operation Payback”, a new initiative allegedly from the same group of hackers that performed the attacks in 2003.
Operation Payback
It’s believed that other hacker groups have joined in on the efforts to ally themselves with WikiLeaks and attack those who’ve attacked out against WikiLeaks. Nobody on the outside knows just how big this network spans and especially if they’ve been banded together with communities like 4chan, it could very well be one of the largest unified hacking campaigns to date.
4chan




This type of attack typically involves flooding a target website with data. The attackers hope to overwhelm it in one way or another so it cannot serve its legitimate users. As its name implies it aims to deny service to those visitors.

How are the attacks made?


Using Twitter and probably hidden IRC channels, the group has managed coordinate their attacks in a very effective way. The majority of the attacks so far have all been mass DDoS (Distributed Denial-of-Service) attacks which on a big scale and have been effective in collapsing the websites of these organizations. In case you're unaware of the type of attack this is, it's a method that calls on multiple computers (usually networked as slave units) to connect all at once and continuously to the victim of the attack, causing their servers to collapse due to the weight of traffic demands.



There are many types of DDoS attacks; some exploit the basic protocols of the internet that define how your web browser talks to the webpage you want to visit while other attacks send fragments of data packets to a target so it spends all its time putting them back together rather than sending data to visitors. Against sites with a low bandwidth link to the wider web simply sending lots of data traffic can choke the connection and cut it off.
In essence, what is happening is that lots and lots of individuals are hammering specific websites with TCP or UDP packets or HTTP requests. There are only so many resources to go around, which means that with enough individuals involved, even large websites can be taken down very quickly.
The first denial of service attacks typically came from a single source. Now the data bombardment is typically carried out by lots of computers, usually running Windows, all over the world, hence distributed. Most attacks are carried out through a botnet.
DDoS




What is a botnet?


Botnets are groups of computers, unwittingly linked together via the internet, that can be remotely controlled to perform tasks. Typically they send out spam email, perform DDoS attacks, and gather personal information. Botnets are typically created through virus infection, or by installing malicious software (known as malware) on your machine. Malware can take many forms but are typically referred to as a 'trojan'. Named after the legendary Trojan horse, it is a piece of malicious code that hides inside another piece of software (in this instance illegally downloaded copies of software).

As the user installs the software, it is also installing the trojan program unware of the fact that might be creating a new zombie computer to be part of a botnet controled by who knows who....


Botnet




Most of the participants in Operation Payback are not hackers — at least not in the true sense of the word. Instead, these users are using computer programs — or more recently, simply visiting websites — in order to stage their attack.


Anonymous is using a botnet but one that is slightly different to the usual. The botnet is made up of machines that have been actively enrolled in it by their owners downloading and installing Anonymous' attack tool - known as the Low Orbit Ion Cannon (LOIC).
This tool, which was purportedly originally created to stress test networks, is written in C# and can be downloaded off open source code repositories like Github and Sourceforge.
LOIC can be used to target a website the user inputs, or using an option called Hive Mind, to connect to IRC or even Twitter, and grab information for a targeted web attack. Because C# will only work on Windows computers out of the box (Mac and Linux users have to install additional libraries and do extra configuration), a Java port of LOIC also exists. The most recent variant of LOIC is a new proof of concept that is floating around called JS LOIC. The “JS” in the title stands for JavaScript. This proof of concept, which doesn’t appear to have as many features as LOIC or Java LOIC — and may also be easier to stop — is actually pretty clever.
JS LOIC

Rather than requiring a user download program to run, someone can just visit a web page with a single HTML file and press a button to carry out their part of an attack. On the one hand, the trick of using JavaScript to carry out this kind of flooding attack is pretty clever. On the other hand, it’s also pretty scary.

From what we can gather, the majority of the attacks on Operation Payback targets are not coming from web clients. However, that could change. We would caution users against clicking on any links claiming to aid in this series of attacks. Not only is willfully participating in a DDoS illegal in many countries, you never know what is behind the file you download or what action clicking on that web button could trigger.
As with many other aspects of the WikiLeaks saga, the distributed and de-centralized nature of the Internet means that shutting down all mirrors for documents — or even for attack tools — is an exercise in futility.

This is easily the most public and mainstream hacking campaign to date and so far it must be said, has been largely successful. A spokesperson for the group behind Operation Payback posted that they’d attack all of those who were “bowing down to government pressure”.

So what does this say about the power of the internet? Nothing really that experts didn’t know about. But for the general public and for the media as a whole, I think it’s come to quite a shock to them knowing that hackers could be so influential and on the frontline of the news for a sustained period of time. Most people’s impressions of your average hacker is that of one who sits around and steals your credit card number and whilst this is still a major problem, it does put things into perspective when groups such as Anon manage to bring down Goliath companies like Mastercard and Swiss FinancePost to their knees.

Small defacement attacks by political reasons, or just for the fun of it, are very common and happen every day but this is a completely new phenomenon, we are now dealing with a potentially global cyber power and cyber war can trigger some heavy legislative responses from governments worldwide.

Cyber War III - Change in Tactics?

'Coldblood', a member of the group Anonymous, told a BBC reporter why he views its attacks on Visa and Mastercard as defence of Wikileaks. Web attacks carried out in support of Wikileaks are being wound down as activists consider changing tactics. Attacks against Amazon were called off late on 9 December and re-directed towards net payments firm Paypal and its computer systems which, according to a status page, has intermittently suffered "performance issues" ever since.


There have also been calls for attacks on official Dutch websites following the arrest of a 16-year-old boy suspected of involvement in the online campaign. But early today Moneybookers was chosen as the next target and its site was occasionally unreachable from about 1100 GMT.

The chances of success could be boosted by a new version of LOIC written in web programming language Javascript that allows anyone with a browser, including on a mobile phone, to launch attacks. However, defences against the attacks were being drawn up as security firms scrutinise the code behind LOIC to work out how attacks happen. Some suggest that well-written firewall rules would be able to filter out most of the harmful traffic.

The LOIC tool has been downloaded more than 46,000 times but, said Anonymous activists in a tweet, this did not translate into enough people using it to knock the retail giant off the web

One of those activists said he had a botnet of 30,000 machines under his control that he was planning to use on behalf of Wikileaks. A botnet is a network of hijacked home computers that have been compromised by their owners visiting a booby-trapped webpage that installs code to hand over control to a hi-tech criminal. A botnet with 30,000 machines in it is considered to be about average size. Most of the spam sent around the net is funnelled through machines that are in botnets.

There are also suggestions that the Anonymous group might be about to drop the web attacks in favour of another tactic. Its use of the term Anonymous comes from a series of websites frequented by members, such as the anarchic image board 4Chan. These allow users to post without having to register or provide a name. As a result, their comments are tagged "Anonymous".

A message posted on the 4chan image board, out of which Anonymous has grown, suggests dropping LOIC in favour of publicising information in the diplomatic cables that Wikileaks is releasing. Searching for the less-well publicised cables and spreading the information they contain around the web could be more effective than simply knocking out sites deemed to be enemies of Wikileaks, it said.

The message also suggests using misleading tags on posts and YouTube videos to trick people into reading or viewing the information.

"They don't fear the LOIC, they fear exposure," read the message.